Ranchi University was established on july12, 1960, with ten post graduate departments, one constituent college (Ranchi College, Ranchi), and 20 affiliated college spread over an area of 65,000 square kilometer.

Being located in predominantly tribal area, the University has successfully lived upto the expectations and aspirations of the people in its fifty years of existence. And it continues to do so despite being subjected to trifurcation: first in 1992 when Vinoba  Bhave University, Hazaribagh was carved out; second, inJanuary 2009 when Nilambar Pitamber University, Medninagar, was created; and;third,in August 2009 when Kolhan University, Chaibasa, was created. Today its territorial jurisdiction covers five districts only.

Despite so many divisions, Ranchi University continues to play a leading role in imparting higher educate in the state.

At present the University has 23 post graduate departments, 15 constituent colleges, and 49 affiliated colleges, imparting teaching in medicine, psychiatry, law, engineering, business management, education, and general courses. Besides these institutions there is UGC sponsored Academic Staff College.

The university’s pursuit of academic excellence is reflected in the fact that today is has four autonomous colleges, and three college with potential for excellence (CPE) status. Beside these, five colleges have already been granted accreditation by NAAC. The faculty in University’s post graduate departments and colleges are working on major and minor projects sponsored by UGC, DBT and other prestigious organizations.

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has chosen the University department of Geology under its FIST  programme.

The University has also instituted extramural lecture series, one I each faculty, in  honour of Dr.J.C.Bose in the faculty of Science, Dr. S.K.Mukherjee in the faculty of Engineering, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the faculty of education, Dr. Camil Bulke in the faculty of Humanities, Barrister S.K.Sahay in the faculty of Law, Dr.Davis in faculty of Medicine, Dr. D.C Munda in the faculty of Social Science and Prof.R.S.Mandal in the faculty of Commerce.

Beside regular courses, Ranchi University also offers post graduate level Self Financing/Vocational courses nemly L.L.M., M.B.A., M.C.A., M.Sc in Electronics & Communication, P.G Diploma in Medicinal Plant & P.G. Diploma in Plant Bio- Technology.

At the under graduate level the University offers B.Ed., Bio-technology, Computer Application, Computer Maintenance, Information Technology, Office Management and Secretarial Practice, Functional Hindi, Functional English, Clinical Nutrition & Dietics, Fashion Designing, Food Processing, Environment & Water Management, Business Administration, Travel and Tourism Management, Mass Communication and Video Production, Advertising and Sales Promotion& Sales Management.

To provide greater horizontal mobility to student the University has introduced several add-on-courses (certificate/diploma/advanced diploma).

The universit’y Central Library, fully automated, has about two lakh books, INFLIBNET facility, and reprographic facility. Students, research scholars and teachers can access more than 3500 national and international journals. The reading room at the newly constructed wing of Central Library can be used by students and research scholar from 10a.m to mid night with internet access till5 p.m.

In pursuance of the UGC guidelines for ensuring gender equity and economic self reliance of women the university is running a Women’s Study Centre at Ranchi Women’s College, Ranchi.

The newly constructed Institute of Basic & Applied Science building which was inaugurated by Her Excellency the President of India, Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil on 10th December 2010, now six university departments: Geology, Mathematics and Physics.Chemistry,Botany, Zoology has been shifted. The construction of university guest house is completed.

In extra-curricular activities, the University has fully functional units of NSS and NCC in its colleges. In sports, the university’s teams in archery, hockey,volleyball, football, chess and Cricket, have been among the leading teams at the inner-university tournaments.

Youth festivals are held regularly at the college and university levels.

To prepare students for jobs and NET/SET examinations, the university is running coaching classes for ST/SC/minorities. Remedial Classes are also held for ST/SC/Minorities.

Ranchi University gives fully freeship to two BPL students and two scholarship of Rs. 500 per month to two meritorious BPL  students in each post graduate department in each academic session. Besidethat, five BPL students are given full freeship in each self financing course in each constituent college.

Ranchi University futer plans include establishing several instituations, like Institute of Languages, Institute of Applied Science, Maulana Azad centre of Comparative Literature and National Interagation, Institute of Natural Resource Management System, University College of Engineering and System  Sciences, Institute of Media Studies, University College of Visual and Performing Arts, University College of Law, and University College of Medical Sciences.